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The Detailed Steps of Swimming Pool Water Treatment and Considerations for Each Step

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Pool water treatment is a critical step in maintaining the quality of pool water, as it not only concerns the health and safety of swimmers but also the maintenance and longevity of pool facilities. In this article, we will provide a detailed explanation of each step involved in pool water treatment, emphasizing the specific considerations that need to be taken into account during each step. By correctly executing these steps, you can ensure that your pool water remains clean, healthy, and long-lasting.

Pictures of swimming pool water treatment

Methods Used in Pool Water Purification

  1. Flocculation: In this step, flocculants such as aluminum salts, iron salts, and polymers react with impurities in the water. These flocculants promote the aggregation of small impurities into larger particles that form sediment. Subsequently, these sediments are removed by the pool’s filtration system, effectively eliminating suspended matter and some bacteria from the water.
  2. Clarification: After the action of flocculants, the formed larger particles settle in the pool water, allowing the upper layer of water to become clearer. This process aids in removing more impurities and microorganisms, providing a solid foundation for subsequent treatment.
  3. Pool Vacuuming: Using a dedicated pool vacuum machine, sediment settled at the bottom of the pool is removed. This step not only helps maintain the cleanliness of the pool bottom but also prevents sediment from being re-agitated into the water.
  4. Disinfection: During this stage, disinfectants such as chlorine disinfectant, bromine, or other chemicals are added to kill bacteria, viruses, and algae in the water. Advanced disinfection equipment such as ultraviolet light, ozone, or metal ions can also be employed to further enhance the safety and hygiene of the water.
  5. Circulation and Filtration: Treated water is pumped through filters containing materials like quartz sand, activated carbon, or other specialized filter media. These filters effectively capture remaining impurities in the water, further purifying the water quality and enhancing its clarity.

Factors Affecting Coagulation Efficiency

  1. Water Temperature: Coagulation is less effective at low temperatures because the hydrolysis of inorganic coagulants is an endothermic reaction. Low temperatures hinder the hydrolysis process. Additionally, lower temperatures result in higher water viscosity, slowing down the thermal motion of impurities and reducing their chances of collision and aggregation. Higher temperatures facilitate faster diffusion between molecules, favoring coagulation reactions (typically, water temperature between 20-29°C is ideal).
  2. pH Value and Alkalinity of Water: pH significantly influences the coagulation process with aluminum-based coagulants. The hydrolysis of aluminum salts produces hydroxide aluminum colloids, which are amphoteric compounds. Maintaining a pH range of 7-8 is essential for achieving optimal coagulation results.
  3. Composition, Nature, and Concentration of Impurities: The composition of impurities, such as clay with fine and uniform particle sizes, leads to poor coagulation results. Low impurity concentration is also not conducive to coagulation. The presence of organic substances can adsorb on the surface of colloid particles, reducing their coagulation efficiency. High concentrations of salts can affect coagulation by increasing the anionic charge.

In addition to these factors, coagulation efficiency depends on the type of coagulant used, its dosage, quality, mixing speed during dosing, and uniformity.

Reasons for the Appearance of Floating Substances on the Pool Surface

  1. Insufficient Coagulant Dosage: Using too little coagulant may result in ineffective coagulation and sedimentation, causing small suspended particles to remain in the water and form surface scum.
  2. Excessive Coagulant Dosage: Conversely, an excessive dosage of coagulant can lead to counter-ion effects, reducing its effectiveness. In such cases, suspended particles may not effectively aggregate, leading to the formation of surface scum.
  3. Sudden Temperature Changes and Water Flow Disturbances: Sudden temperature changes or water flow disturbances can disrupt the stability of sediment in the pool. When the sediment is disturbed, particles that should settle at the bottom may float to the water surface.
  4. Delayed or Thick Sediment Removal: If sediment is not promptly removed through vacuuming or if the sediment layer becomes too thick, it may hinder the effectiveness of sediment removal, leading to the formation of surface scum.
  5. Improper Vacuuming Techniques: Skillful operation of pool vacuum equipment is crucial. Improper techniques, such as vacuuming too quickly, can disturb sediment, causing surface scum to appear.

The Role of Filtration in Pool Water Purification

In the process of pool water purification, filtration plays a crucial role. Despite the previous treatment steps of coagulation, sedimentation, and vacuuming, filtration is essential to further improve water quality. Water passing through filters, typically using quartz sand as the filter media, captures fine particulate impurities (such as bacteria, small suspended particles, and some organic matter). This significantly reduces water turbidity, enhances water cleanliness, and improves water safety.

In conclusion, pool water treatment is vital for maintaining water quality and ensuring the safety and satisfaction of swimmers. Each step in the treatment process holds unique importance, and neglecting any of them can lead to water quality issues and health risks. Therefore, when maintaining a pool, it is essential to strictly follow the detailed steps provided in this article and always keep in mind the necessary considerations.

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